Alloying elements and scrap

More information on the alloying elements like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, manganese... can be found here. More detailed information on the scrap cycle is also available.

The elements

The different alloying elements in stainless steel can be combined in different proportions to create a range of grades that are suitable for almost any application.

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Published: 26/11/2013
Last modified: 26/11/2013

Nickel Metal - The Facts

Nickel is a naturally occurring, lustrous, silvery-white metallic element. It is the fifth most common element on earth and occurs extensively in the earth's crust. However, most of the nickel is inaccessible in the core of the earth.

Source: Nickel Institute

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Published: 29/6/2012
Last modified: 29/6/2012

Global Stainless Steel Manufacturing and Scrap Cycle

The use of stainless steel has been characterized for 51 countries and the world for the years 2000 and 2005. We find that the global stainless steel flow-into-use increased by more than 30% in that 5 year period, as did additions to in-use stocks. This growth was mainly driven by China, which accounted for almost half of the global growth in stainless steel crude production and which tripled its flow into use between 2000 and 2005. The global stainless steel-specific end-of-life recycling rate increased from 66% (2000) to 70% (2005); the landfilling rate was 22% for both years, and 9% (2000) to 12% (2005) was lost into recycled carbon and alloy steels. Within just 5 years, China passed such traditionally strong stainless steel producers and users as Japan, USA, Germany, and South Korea to become the dominant player of the stainless steel industry. However, China did not produce any significant stainless steel end-of-life flows in 2000 or 2005 because its products-in-use are still too new to require replacements. Major Chinese discard flows are expected to begin between 2015 and 2020.

(Reck et al. 2010. Global stainless steel cycle exemplifies China's rise to metal dominance. Environmental Science & Technology 44 (10): 3940-3946)

Source: Center for Industrial Ecology, Yale University

Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Nickel – its history, sources and uses

This article by the Minerals Information Institute summarises the sources, history and uses of nickel.

Source: Mineral Information Institute

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Chromium – its history, sources and uses

This article by the Minerals Information Institute summarises the sources, history and uses of chromium.

Source: Mineral Information Institute

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Molybdenum - its history, sources and uses

This article by the Minerals Information Institute summarises the sources, history and uses of molybdenum.

Source: Mineral Information Institute

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Manganese - its history, sources and uses

This article by the Minerals Information Institute summarises the sources, history and uses of manganese.

Source: Mineral Information Institute

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Alloying Elements in Stainless Steels and Other Chromium-Containing Alloys

This Euro Inox Brochure summarises the characteristics of the principal alloying elements used in stainless steels and discusses their role as alloying elements. It covers Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum, Niobium, Titanium, Manganese, Silicon and Nitrogen.

Source: Euro Inox

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

About Molybdenum

24-page brochure describing the history, extraction and uses of Molybdenum. Published by the International Molybdenum Association.

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Manganese

Manganese is a little-known element other than to a small circle of technical specialists who are predominantly metallurgists and chemists. Yet it is the fourth most used metal in terms of tonnage, being ranked behind iron, aluminum and copper, with in the order of 46 million tons of ore being mined annually (2008).

Source: International Manganese Institute

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Molybdenum

Molybdenum is a metallic element which is most frequently used as an alloying addition in alloy and stainless steels. Its alloying versatility is unmatched because its addition enhances strength, hardenability, weldability, toughness, elevated temperature strength and corrosion resistance.

Source: International Molybdenum Association

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Chromium

Chromium is introduced into irons, steels and many superalloys by alloying with the intermediate product, ferrochromium. This is produced by the pyrometallurgical reduction of chromite ore with carbon and/or silicon in high temperature electric arc furnaces.

Ferrochromium is essentially an alloy of iron and chromium which may intentionally contain substantial levels of carbon and silicon.

Source: International Chromium Development Association

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012