Fabrication

In this section more information about fabrication, welding, cleaning, descaling, forming, ... of stainless steels can be found.

Welding Handbook

Sandvik’s guidelines provide a step-by-step aid to the successful welding of stainless steels and nickel alloys: filler meta,, welding parameters, joint preparation, post-weld cleaning and more… 

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Published: 12/6/2017
Last modified: 12/6/2017

Stainless steel flat products for building the grades in EN 10088 4 explained

Practical guidance for the proper use of stainless steel is limited and dispersed. It is the purpose of this brochure to combine information from standards with relevant practical experience to give designers and fabricators basic orientation. For practical reasons this publication focuses on flat products.

This publication is available in English, French and German [clicking on the language will download a pdf]

Published: 5/1/2016
Last modified: 5/1/2016

Stainless Steel in Contact with Other Metallic Materials

Complex design requirements can make it necessary to combine different metallic materials within the same component. Also, chance combinations can often be found, governed only by the availability of, for instance, fasteners or shims. In certain circumstances, such mixed-material designs can lead to corrosion in one of the partner materials. This phenomenon includes galvanic corrosion, in which two different metals form a galvanic couple. 
The present publication describes the principles of galvanic corrosion and the main parameters that allow designers to estimate corrosion risk.

This brochure is available in English, Czech, Dutch, Finnish, French, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish

Published: 17/12/2015
Last modified: 17/12/2015

Adhesive Bonding of Stainless Steels

Adhesive bonding is the process of joining materials with the aid of an adhesive - a substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. This brochure describes the process with stainless steels.

The brochure is available in English and German [clicking on the language will download the brochure]

Published: 14/12/2015
Last modified: 14/12/2015

The Welding of Stainless Steels

This brochure contains the following chapters:

  • General information on stainless steel
  • Stainless steel welding processes
  • Weldability of stainless steel
  • Selecting shielding gases for welding of stainless steel
  • Selecting welding consumables for welding stainless steel
  • Joint preparation in arch welding
  • Finishing treatment for welds
  • Safe practices
  • Glossary: terms and definitions

This brochure is available in English, Czech, Dutch, Polish and Turkish [clicking on the language will open the pdf]

Published: 14/12/2015
Last modified: 14/12/2015

Nickel Institute Technical Literature on Design, Fabrication and Welding

The technical literature on the Design, Fabrication and Welding of Stainless Steels of the Nickel Institute includes:

  • Welding of stainless steels and other joining methods
  • Stainless steels for machining
  • Cold forming stainless steel bar and wire
  • Fabrication and post-fabrication cleanup of stainless steels
  • Welding status of duplex stainless steels for off shore applications
  • Procurement of quality stainless steel castings
  • Fabrication and metallurgical experience in stainless steel process vessels exposed to corrosive aqueous environments
  • Stainless steel sheet lining of steel tanks and pressure vessels
  • Development of mechanized field girth welding of high-alloy corrosion-resistant pipeline materials
  • Clad engineering
  • Specifying stainless steel surface treatments
  • Nickel containing materials in flue gas desulphurization equipment
  • Effectiveness of sanitation with quaternary ammonium compound or chlorine on stainless steel and other domestic food-preparation surfaces
  • Cleaning stainless steel surfaces prior to sanitary service
  • Microbiologically influenced corrosion of stainless steels by water used for cooling and hydrostatic testing
  • Guidelines for the welded fabrication of nickel-containing stainless steels for corrosion-resistant services
  • Fabricating Stainless Steels for the Water Industry: Guidelines for Achieving Top Performance
  • Technical manual for the design and construction of roofs of stainless steel sheet
  • Design manual for structural stainless steel
  • Guidelines for welding dissimilar metals
  • Weld fabrication of a 6% molybdenum alloy to avoid corrosion in bleach plant service
  • Welding duplex and super-duplex stainless steels
  • Welding stainless and 9% nickel steel cryogenic vessels
  • Fabrication techniques for successful orbital tube welding
  • Impact performance of model spot-welded stainless steel structures
  • Heat tints on stainless steels can cause corrosion problems
  • Nickel alloys and stainless steels for elevated temperature service: weldability considerations

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Published: 3/7/2012
Last modified: 3/7/2012

Good Practices

"Good Practices" is an online slide presentation (with accompanying audio) that highlights the good practices which should be followed to maintain the corrosion resistance and aesthetic qualities of austenitic stainless steels.

Source: Nickel Institute

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Published: 3/7/2012
Last modified: 3/7/2012

The Mechanical Finishing of Decorative Stainless Steel Surfaces

This document discusses the following points:

  • Specifying mechanically finished surfaces for stainless steel fabrications
  • Frequently used finishing methods
  • Frequently used abrasives and power tools
  • Best practice finishing
  • Case studies
  • Health, safety and environmental issues

This brochure is available in Czech, Dutch, English, German, Finnish, French, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish [clicking on the language will download the pdf]

Published: 8/5/2012
Last modified: 8/5/2012

Stainless Steel Fabrication

Describes fabrication methods, such as cutting, shearing, blanking, bending and forming. Compares stainless to mild steel with suggested fabrication methods. Descaling, removing mild discoloration, and the definition of passivation are discussed. Comments on handling, care in the shop, and cleaning procedures.

Source: Specialty Steel Industry of North America

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Published: 8/5/2012
Last modified: 8/5/2012

The Forming Potential of Stainless Steel

Stainless steel has considerable potential informing applications, due to its interesting range of mechanical properties. The material's high strength-to-weigth ratio and considerable elongation and work hardening properties mean it can often meet the challenges of complex, three-dimensional, seamless designs.

This brochure is available in the following languages: Czech, Dutch, English, German, Finnish, French, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish [clicking on the language will open the pdf]

Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Care and Maintenance of Stainless Steel

Stainless steels are selected for applications where their inherent corrosion resistance, strength and aesthetic appeal are required. However, dependent on the service conditions, stainless steels will stain and discolour due to surface deposits and so cannot be assumed to be completely maintenance-free. In order to achieve maximum corrosion resistance and aesthetic appeal, the surface of the stainless steel must be kept clean. Provided the grade of stainless steel and the surface finish are correctly selected, and cleaning schedules carried out on a regular basis, good performance and long service life will result.

Source: British Stainless Steel Association

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Welding and Post Fabrication Cleaning for Construction and Architectural Applications

Welding inevitably produces contamination of the steel surface, not least of which is the heat tint at the weld line. Care must be taken to minimise and control this contamination. Similarly care must be taken when designing and implementing stud welded structures. Welded structures should normally be cleaned after fabrication. Various methods are available which may influence the aesthetics of the unit. This can be advantageous.

Source: British Stainless Steel Association

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Working with Stainless Steels

The importance of good design and surface finish selection for the successful fabrication of stainless steel is outlined along with some of the properties that can affect the fabrication and performance of stainless steels.

Source: British Stainless Steel Association

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Welding Of Stainless Steels

An overview of welding stainless steels is given, with particular reference to the various welding methods that can be used. Standards mentioned include BSEN1600 BSEN12072 BSEN12073 BSEN760 BSEN287 Part1 (Approved testing of welders for fusion welding) BSEN288 Part 3 Welding Procedure tests for the arc welding of steels.

Source: British Stainless Steel Association

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Forming & Fabrication Techniques for Stainless Steel

Forming methods are discussed and include cutting, sawing, shearing, plasma cutting, blanking, punching, piercing, bending, drawing, spinning and tube bending.

Source: British Stainless Steel Association

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Stainless Steel Threaded Fittings

For many years, stainless steel low pressure fittings have been manufactured to dimensions of cast (ANSI B16.3) malleable iron and wrought steel (BS 1740) fittings standards. These standards have governed the majority of readily available stainless steel products in Australia.

Source: Australian Stainless Steel Development Association

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Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012

Practical Guidelines for the Fabrication of Duplex Stainless Steels

Specifiers and fabricators requiring the unique combination of high corrosion resistance and outstanding material strength provided by duplex stainless steels now have freely available to them a definitive guide to selecting and working with duplex grades.

A major update of ‘Practical Guidelines for the fabrication of Duplex Stainless Steels’ brings together in one publication experience from around the world. It goes beyond the first and second generations of these materials also taking into account the latest developments in lean duplex and hyper duplex grades.

This publication is available in Chinese, English, French, German, ItalianJapanesePortugese and Spanish (clicking on the language will open the pdf).

Published: 7/5/2012
Last modified: 7/5/2012